:?:Firstly, what are the best type to use i.e. low voltage or other.
:?:Secondly, when and why would I need to use a transformer.
:?: Thirdly, can the lights be installed without lifting floorboards from upstairs or in loft?
:?: Does anyone have idiot-prrof instructions on how to install recessed lighting? I am looking to put this form of lighting in the kitchen, bathroom and lounge - the lounge to hopefully be dimmable - please help a woman who would like to do her own DIY!
I'll try my best to answer your question you may not like somethings I am going to say but stay with me!
Common mistake low voltage is considered to be a voltage between 50 and 1000volts (this is a killer). Domestic Properties normally 230Volts. So that is scary!
So extra low voltage is the term best used less than 50volts(touch voltage a lot safer).
This will need a step down transformer 230v-12volts the norm. usually supplied with the lights.
You can install lights from above loft space without to much trouble, as long as switch arrangement available otherwise means chasing out walls.
You can wire from ceiling but means putting holes in it.
Here is the thing! Don't like to sound patronising so sorry if I do! It really does sound like you need a qualified part p compliant electrician for the work you are wanting to undertake, by all means you can offer a hand with guidance but don't diy this, lots of regulation to be complied with and electrical certification for legal and insurance reason.
Sorry but be safe.
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